The best way of overcoming something is to understand its causes. “Dark circles can be caused by multiple different factors,” explains Dr Maryam Zamani, Oculoplastic Surgeon and Aesthetic Doctor and creator of MZ Skin. It can be caused by a loss of volume, which happens naturally as we age and results in more pronounced tear troughs. It can be caused by excess pigmentation (known as hyperpigmentation, even your ethnicity can play into it. “There is some genetic component to dark circles,” explains Dr Maryam. “Some ethnicities, such as Asian and south east Asians, can have hereditary hyperpigmentation and some individuals have a family history of puffy lower eyelids from fat prolapse,” she explains.